AP42 Section: 11.19.1 Production Of Sand And Gravel
Sand and gravel occur in a . wide . v:triety of deposits both above and below water. These deposits may consist of hanks, pits, or the beds . gf . streams, lakes or &her bodies of rrnt,er. The banks and pits may extend below the \\-at,er level. Sand and gravel originate from the xveat,hering . of . rock and it,s transportation by . ir:it,er.DRILLING METHODS IN SAND AND GRAVEL,In medium consistency sand and small gravel, the drill rods are rotated by a special roller wrench equipment instead of the more usual kelly. In coarse formations, gravel and boulders, casing is driven by special pile driving equipment with collapsible mast for easy transport.Techniques for Assessing Sand and Gravel Resources in,The wholesale value is the in-place value of the sand and gravel prior to digging, screening, loading, and transporting. Gravel, with a wholesale value of $0.75/short ton (st), is the primary target for development; sand, with a wholesale value of $0.10/st, is a less prized but very abundant com modity.